Find out why sleep deprivation might sabotage your efforts to trim down by making you more likely to overeat.
Recent studies have shown the importance of sleep in maintaining a healthy weight. A study from the University of Pennsylvania found that those who are awake between the hours of 10 p.m. and 4 a.m. are more likely to consume more calories. When they were awoken until the wee hours of the morning, they consumed 553 extra calories on average. However, sleep deprivation has broader effects than just midnight munchies.
You Gain Weight
A greater index of body mass and increased weight growth have both been linked frequently to insufficient sleep.
While the optimal amount of sleep for an individual may vary, studies show that when people receive less than seven hours per night, their weight shifts.
A large research indicated that both children and adults were more likely to be overweight because of insufficient sleep.
In a second study, researchers tracked 60,000 healthy registered nurses over the course of 16 years. Nurses who averaged five or fewer hours of sleep per night found 15% more likely to become obese at the conclusion of the trial compared to those who averaged seven or more hours.
Weight gain has been observed in both experimental and observational investigations of sleep deprivation.
In one experiment, 16 healthy adults got only five hours each night of sleep for five consecutive nights. In the brief time frame of this study, they managed to pack over an average of 1.8 lbs.
Weight increase also exacerbates the symptoms of many sleep disorders, including sleep apnea.
This is a trap from which it may be difficult to break free. Inadequate slumber has been linked to weight growth, which in turn has been linked to even worse sleep.
Of course, sleep deprivation isn't the only cause of weight gain; other factors include genetics, diet, exercise, stress, and health. However, there is an abundance of proof that shows how losing sleep causes people to gain weight.
It does not take much time or sleep loss to gain a significant amount of weight. Scientists at the University of Colorado conducted an intriguing study in which they discovered that those who slept for an average of 5 hours every night for a week gained an average of 2 pounds.
When you don't get enough sleep, your body goes through a number of changes that can cause you to put on extra pounds. Hunger and appetite-controlling hormones are disrupted by sleep loss. Leptin is a hormone that prevents overeating by signalling the body to burn more calories. Leptin levels drop when people don't get enough sleep. When you're sleep deprived, your body produces more of the hunger-inducing hormone ghrelin.
Insomnia alters your food preferences, increasing your need for high-fat and sugary snacks. When you're sleep deprived, your head can't make the most informed decisions about what you eat, thereby making you more likely to act on impulse and give in to unhealthy cravings.
We also know that sleep deprivation, particularly mild sleep deprivation, can lead to a rise in appetite the following day. In addition, eating more of your daily calories at night is associated with sleep deprivation and has been linked to weight growth.
To give you an idea of how much of an impact cutting added sugar by 10 grammes per day can have, consider that the American Heart Association recommends a maximum of 36 grammes per day for men and 25 grammes per day for women. Participants in the study who got more sleep also exhibited an initial tendency to reduce their carbohydrates and fats consumption.
The inability to get a good night's rest may result in a greater hunger the following day
Those who don't get enough sleep often report feeling hungrier the next day, according to research.
This is due to sleep's effect on ghrelin and leptin, two crucial hunger hormones.
Hungry signals are sent to the brain via ghrelin, a hormone secreted by the stomach. It's at its peak when the the stomach is empty, right before eating, and at its lowest immediately thereafter.
Fatty tissue secretes the hormone leptin. It sends the brain the message that it is full, so reducing appetite.
Without enough shut-eye, your body will produce more of the hunger hormone ghrelin and less of the satiety hormone leptin.
Short-sleepers had 14.9% higher ghrelin and 15.5% lower increased serum than long-sleepers, according to a study of more than 1,000 adults.
Those who slept less were more likely to be overweight. Additionally, when you don't get enough sleep, your cortisol levels rise. Cortisol, a hormone released in response to stress, may also stimulate food cravings.
Your calorie intake may rise if you don't get enough sleep.
Those who often suffer from sleep deprivation are more likely to overeat. One research of 12 males discovered that when sleep time was restricted to four hours, participants consumed an average of 559 more carbohydrates the following day compared t when they were given eight hours to rest.
As indicated before, an increase in desire and poor food selection could be to blame for this calorie surge.
However, it could also be due to more spending time awake and so more time to eat. This holds especially true if one spends one's awake time doing nothing productive, such as watching television.
In addition, investigations on sleep loss have revealed that a considerable amount of the extra calories were ingested as snacks after supper.
The inability to regulate one's food intake due to lack of sleep might also contribute to weight gain.
A test with 16 male participants proved this. They either let the participants sleep for 7 hours or had them stay up all night. They had a computer-based morning assignment in which they had to decide how much of various items to eat.
People who stayed up all night ate more than average, reported feeling hungrier, and had greater concentrations of the thirst hormone ghrelin.
Reduced Resting Metabolic Rate May Result from Inadequate Sleep.
The number of calories used by your body while at total rest is known as your metabolic rate (RMR). Variables such as age, body mass index, height, gender, and muscle mass all play a role.
A decrease in RMR has been linked to insufficient sleep.
Fifteen males participated in a 24-hour sleep deprivation study. Their resting metabolic rate (RMR) was 5% lower and their post-meal metabolic rate (MEMR) was 20% lower than it would have been following a typical night's sleep.
However, contradictory evidence suggests that sleep deprivation does not affect metabolism. Therefore, more study is required to establish whether and to what extent sleep deprivation reduces metabolic rate.
Weak sleep appears to contribute to muscular wasting as well. Loss of muscle causes resting metabolic rates to drop because muscle uses more calories while at rest than fat does.
Ten obese adults participated in a 14-day calorie restriction research. Sleep duration for participants was regulated either to 8.5 or 5.5 hours.
It's true that both groups dropped weight, but the 5.5-hour sleepers lost more muscle and less fat.
It has been calculated that your RMR would decrease by 100 calories per day if you lost 22 pounds (10 kilogrammes) of muscle mass.
You Have Less Sex
You may have heard that a recent survey found that one-third of married Americans are open to the idea of a "sleep divorce." Thirty-plus percent of respondents stated they'd rather not sleep next to their spouses, and ten percent said that sleep problems had ended a previous relationship. To each their own, but I can see the desire to obtain a good night of sleep even if it means sleeping apart from one's mate. Instead of getting a "sleep divorce," I think it's better for couples to work on the underlying problems with sleep that are causing tension in the first place, such as snoring, insomnia, sleeping in such a bed that's too tiny, or having trouble accommodating each other's sleep habits.
Better sleep—and greater sex—would result if the underlying issues that are prompting couples to explore sleeping apart were addressed.
It's common knowledge that exhaustion lowers sexual desire, especially towards the end of the day.
We're too exhausted to have sex tonight, yet sleep deprivation has far-reaching consequences for sex lives.
Sexual arousal and performance can be negatively impacted by sleep deprivation in both sexes, leading to less satisfying and less frequent sexual encounters. Lack of sleep reduces testosterone levels in men. A recent study indicated that healthy young men's testosterone levels dropped by 10-15% after only 10 days of sleeping less than 5 hours per night. Insufficiency in sleep has also been connected to a higher risk of erectile dysfunction.
A lack of sleep has been linked to reduced amounts of testosterone, another hormone crucial to female sex drive. Lack of sleep has been shown to decrease sexual desire and arousal in women, while an extra night's sleep can increase both the following day and the day after. We need further studies to learn how sleep deprivation, especially the chronic sleep debt, might add to sexual issues in women, which has not gotten the kind of attention in the scientific community that it deserves.
Also, it's more difficult to read each other's sexual interest when you're tired. In a 2013 study, researchers found that men who went without sleep for just one night had an exaggerated view of women's desire for sexual activity. Researchers found that the frontal lobe of the brain, the area responsible for risk assessment, inhibition management, and making complicated judgement judgements, was negatively impacted by sleep deprivation.
You Look, and Feel, Older
During sleep, and especially during deep, slow-wave snooze, the body creates more human growth factor (HGH) and renews and repairs all of the body's cells, including those in the skin, tendons, and bones. If you don't get enough shut-eye, you risk not getting this vital regeneration, and it will reflect in how you appear and behave the next day.
Have you ever had a few nights where you didn't get enough sleep and noticed that your skin looked dull and tired? Maintaining supple, young skin requires a good night's rest. Production of protein, the protein responsible for skin's suppleness and firmness and for preventing the formation of wrinkles, is linked to the increase in HGH. Lack of sleep, studies reveal, disrupts collagen formation and can compromise skin's structural integrity.
Lack of sleep has been related to lower muscle mass and strength in the both men and women, especially with advancing age, highlighting the importance of getting a good night's rest for optimal muscle health. Bmd and the formation of fresh, robust bone can both suffer from sleep deprivation.
When you lose muscle and bone mass, it can influence your posture, flexibility, capacity to exercise as well as be active, and even how effectively you recover from injuries. Muscles and bones need sleep so that they can be strong and eager to function for us so that we can maintain our young appearance and vitality.
Your Potential for Harmful Events Skyrockets
Accidents and injuries are more likely to occur when someone is sleep deprived, whether they are at home, at work, on the field, or in the driver's seat. Insomnia is a big risk factor for unintentional death, and I've discussed the implications of this finding in previous pieces.
Though sleep deprivation has cognitive effects that are similar to those of alcohol intoxication, sleepy driving continues to receive much less attention than drunk driving. The most recent studies conducted by AAA demonstrate that drivers who get less than their usual amount of sleep are at a far increased risk of being involved in car accidents. Crash risk increases as the accumulation of sleep deprivation increases. The study indicated that compared to drivers who got seven hours or more of sleep the night before, those who got fewer than four hours of sleep were 11 times more likely to be involved in a car accident.
When you're tired at work, you're a greater danger to yourself and others. Experts at the National Sleep Foundation report that sleep-deprived people are 70 percent more likely to be involved in workplace accidents than their well-rested counterparts.
In addition, sleep deprivation increases the likelihood of injury for athletes of any age, including teenagers.
The existence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) considerably increases your risk of accidents and injuries, which is why this topic is regularly brought up in discussions of OSA and accidents. However, avoiding OSA is of little use in preventing harm on the job if you aren't getting enough shut-eye. When your sleep is interrupted, even temporarily, you become more prone to accidents.
Injuries and illnesses take longer to heal
New evidence reveals that sleep is even more critical to recovery than food. In this study, the researchers wanted to see if an extra nutritional boost may hasten wound healing even when combined with a lack of sleep, so the results are all the more intriguing. Instead, scientists discovered that sleep boosted recovery while insomnia hindered it. This is in line with other studies which have found that lack of sleep retards the body's natural ability to mend itself.
Because sleep has such a profound influence on the immune system, it influences not only wound healing but overall recuperation from illness, surgery, and disease. Lack of sleep increases your vulnerability to disease and lengthens the time it takes to get better afterwards.
The connection between getting enough shut-eye and having a healthy immune system is not new information. Circadian rhythms control not only when we sleep but also how active our immune systems are. While you sleep, especially during slow-wave sleep, your immune system kicks into high gear, producing more of its fighting cells, restoring damaged cells, and launching an offensive against the disease. There is scientific evidence that sleep plays a role in warding off illness of many kinds, from the ordinary cold to cancer.
Identical twins have been studied for their sleep habits and immune function in order to prove that sleep deprivation suppresses the immune system. Researchers mimicked natural sleep cycles and discovered that one set of twins' immune activity was weaker than the other's when compared to longer-sleeping twins.
Quality sleep is just as crucial to your weight maintenance as a healthy diet and regular exercise. How your body processes food is drastically altered by sleep deprivation.
First of all, you'll be less able to regulate your quantities and more likely to give in to temptation when your appetite is increased. Worse worse, it has the potential to become a self-perpetuating loop. When you don't get enough sleep, you gain weight, and when you gain weight, it's more difficult to get to sleep.
Lack of sleep not only compromises your white blood cells, but also prevents you from taking advantage of your body's natural repair and restoration processes.
Keep in mind that while you're lacking sleep, you're probably dealing with all of these concerns at once. Keep it in mind the next moment you're tempted to sacrifice sleep in favour of something else.
It's been shown that grownups who don't get enough sleep are more likely to binge eat. Increases in both the body mass index and total body mass have been linked to insufficient sleep. Gaining weight may also be affected by things like genetics, eating habits, physical inactivity, emotional distress, and general health. Snacking on high-fat, high-sugar foods becomes more appealing when you're sleep deprived. Even a night or two of poor sleep can have repercussions the next day in the form of a more ravenous hunger.
Consuming a disproportionate share of one's usual caloric intake in the late hours of the day is a risk factor for developing obesity and falling asleep while driving. When compared to males who had eight hours of sleep the night before, those who didn't ingest 559 more carbohydrates the day after being sleep deprived were found to be the winners. If you're not getting enough shut-eye, you might not be able to control how much food you eat. Thirty percent of American spouses would consider a "sleep divorce." Sleep deprivation has been related to lower levels of testosterone, another hormone critical to female sex drive.
Lack of sleep has also been linked to an increased likelihood of erectile dysfunction. Insufficient sleep has been linked to decreased muscle growth and strength in both men and women, particularly as people age. Skin care experts agree that getting enough shut-eye is essential for keeping skin looking fresh and young. Sleep deprivation prevents collagen from forming and may weaken skin's structural integrity. There is a 70 percent increase in the risk of workplace accidents for those who haven't slept enough.
The more sleep you miss, the more likely you are to have an accident. A lack of sleep not only slows wound healing, but also hinders recovery from illness, surgery, and disease. Recovery period is also prolonged as a result. Scientific studies have found that getting enough sleep can help you avoid getting sick, from the common cold all the way to cancer. Sleep deprivation affects your white blood cells and stops your body from repairing and rejuvenating itself as it should.
- New research highlights the role of sleep in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
- Weight gain has several causes, including but not limited to genetics, nutrition, lack of exercise, stress, and health, and lack of sleep is only one of them.
- Lack of sleep messes with your hormones that regulate hunger and fullness.
- As you may know, a recent survey indicated that one-third of married Americans are open to the idea of a "sleep divorce."
- Over a third of people polled said they would rather not sleep next to their spouses, and 10% said that lack of sleep was a factor in the demise of a previous relationship.
- Instead of getting a "sleep divorce," I think it's better for couples to address the underlying sleep issues that are contributing to their marital strife, such as snoring, sleeplessness, sleeping in a bed that's too small, or having trouble adapting to one other's sleeping patterns.
- When you don't get enough sleep for a few nights, do you ever look in the mirror and see that your skin looks weary and dull?
- Recent AAA research shows that drivers who get less sleep than usual have a significantly higher risk of getting involved in an automobile accident.
- The more sleep you miss, the more likely you are to have an accident.
- The danger of accidents and injuries is frequently brought up in talks of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), because of the strong correlation between OSA and their occurrence.
- It's common knowledge that getting enough sleep is essential to maintaining a robust immune system.
- To demonstrate that sleep deprivation dampens the immune system, researchers analysed the sleeping patterns and immunological response of sets of identical twins.
- Getting a good night's sleep is as important as eating right and working out when it comes to keeping the weight off and feeling healthy.
- Sleep deprivation leads to weight increase, which in turn makes it harder to fall asleep.
FAQs About Sleeping
During sleep, your body is working to support healthy brain function and maintain your physical health. In children and teens, sleep also helps support growth and development. Getting inadequate sleep over time can raise your risk for chronic (long-term) health problems.
Sleep keeps us healthy and functioning well. It lets your body and brain repair, restore, and reenergize. If you don't get enough sleep, you might experience side effects like poor memory and focus, weakened immunity, and mood changes. Most adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night.
Professionals can evaluate sleep quality through sleep studies and instruments such as the Pittsburgh Quality Sleep Index (PSQI). The PSQI is a series of questions about sleep-related behaviors and is used in both clinical and research settings.
The longest recorded time without sleep is approximately 264 hours, or just over 11 consecutive days. Although it's unclear exactly how long humans can survive without sleep, it isn't long before the effects of sleep deprivation start to show. After only three or four nights without sleep, you can start to hallucinate.
Research suggests that sleep helps learning and memory in two distinct ways. First, a sleep-deprived person cannot focus attention optimally and therefore cannot learn efficiently. Second, sleep itself has a role in the consolidation of memory, which is essential for learning new information.